Who Cares About the Oxford Comma?
The simple series rule is: Use commas to separate items in a series of three or more items. If the items in the series contain commas, then use semi-colons to separate the items. But what about the “Oxford” comma?
Grammar snobs on social media love to talk about this punctuation mark. But it’s not a special character, it’s a specific use of an existing character: the comma. In a series of three or more, the comma that follows the penultimate item and directly precedes and is called the Oxford or serial comma. Use of the Oxford comma is mostly a matter of preference and varies by region and profession.
Lawyers should use the Oxford comma to help avoid ambiguity. Three ambiguities may arise without this comma:
- Whether the two final items in a list are one combined element or separate.
- Whether one noun phrase modifies the others when there are two or more noun phrases next to each other in a list.
- Whether a prepositional phrase modifies an item in a list.
Here’s your rule to remember:
3. Consistently Use the Oxford Comma Before And and the Final Item
Rigorously follow your firm’s style guideline on the Oxford comma. Usually the Oxford comma is the safest way to avoid ambiguity, though there are no guarantees. But inconsistent use in a single document or across multiple documents invites litigation—so avoid it.
For further reading on the Oxford comma, check out 12.57-12.76 in A Manual of Style for Contract Drafting.
Inconsistent use of commas with modifiers or in series can lead to unintended and detrimental interpretations. For best results in your legal writing, learn these three comma rules. If you’d like to review the basic comma usage rules, check out our writing tip and sign up to receive a tip from legal writing expert and WordRake founder Gary Kinder every week in your inbox.
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About the Author
Ivy B. Grey is the Chief Strategy & Growth Officer for WordRake. Prior to joining the team, she practiced bankruptcy law for ten years. In 2020, Ivy was recognized as an Influential Woman in Legal Tech by ILTA. She has also been recognized as a Fastcase 50 Honoree and included in the Women of Legal Tech list by the ABA Legal Technology Resource Center. Follow Ivy on Twitter @IvyBGrey or connect with her on LinkedIn.